Plenty zinc supplies could replace lithium for batteries
One battery technology in the labs uses zinc and air; hence, it is called zinc-air, where the atmosphere is part of the chemical equation.
As reported in the International Business section of the Economic Times, China is not bowing to international pressures to loosen its export quotas; and that includes lithium. Nonetheless, America should not be held hostage as it is with oil, especially when zinc supplies are plentiful.
The main advantage of utilizing zinc-air batteries for vehicle propulsion is its energy availability, as zinc metal is 100 times greater than that of lithium, per unit of battery energy.
The second advantage is, zinc’s supply in the world is more readily available. According to Machine Design, approximately 35% of the world's supply, or 1.8 giga-tons of zinc reserves are in the United States, whereas the U.S. holds less than 1% of known lithium reserves.
This is supported by ev.world.com that reports zinc production ranks fourth in the world, after iron, aluminum and copper.
Together, these are undisputed facts that automakers need to consider. Furthermore, current yearly global zinc production is, in practical terms, sufficient to produce enough zinc-air batteries to power over ten times more electric vehicles than current lithium production can support. If nothing else, it would buy the time needed until hydrogen fuel cells mature and become economically feasible to the masses.
Technical Advantages of Zinc
Together with nano-scale enhanced electrodes, the energy density of zinc has the potential to overcome the range anxiety associated with full electric vehicles. Fact is, zinc-air batteries have higher capacity-to-volume (and weight) ratio than other types of batteries, because air from the atmosphere is one of the battery reactants. And since air is not packaged with the battery, a cell can use more zinc in the anode; and there is plenty of supply even as a replenishing fuel.